Zabelin, Impressionism, and Rostov

On my first trip to the Lazare Gallery I noticed a painting that looked vaguely familiar. But how could an art gallery so new to me, new in artists, subjects, and styles, have a piece I recognized?

Zabelin Rostov Veliki                            Vyacheslav Zabelin, Rostov Veliki, Oil On Canvas, 1973

Well, it is because Rostov had a lasting impression on me when I visited there this past summer. I truly felt like I had lived there in another life and am eager to return sometime, hopefully for longer than a day this time! The artist Zabelin must have had a similar experience because according to the art historian Sergey Alexandrovich Gavrilyachenko, Zabelin was caught off guard it Rostov’s archaic beauty. After graduation from the Surikov Institute, Zabelin and his peers went on a trip to Vologda to get away from the Soviet city life. From the train, they saw Rostov the Great and initially were only going to stop for a day but ended up never even making it to Vologda. Instead, they stayed for a long time in Rostov. For the rest of his days Zabelin returned to Rostov again, and again eager to paint its beauty.

zablin street in rostov                            Vyacheslav Zabelin, Street in Rostov, Oil on Canvas, 1990

In the book, ‘Zabelin: Master of Color- The Life and Works of Vyacheslav Nikolaivich Zabelin’ many were able to convey their admiration of Zabelin. This includes the owner of the Lazare Gallery John Wurdeman, who also played a large role in the completion of this book. In the preface he wrote about  personal experience with Zabelin. Wurdeman was introduced to the then living Zabelin after Wuredman’s son graduated from Zabelin’s studio at the Surikov Institute in 1998.  Wurdeman then began to acquire Zabelin’s works. By 1999 he was invited to Zabelin’s house to which Zablin noted to Wurdeman that his paintings “look best in frames.” He recalls having a very pleasant evening with the artist. Wurdeman on Zabelin’s work believes “…his easily recognizable style is already apparent by the spontaneity, and the bright and remarkable use of color and light, the very qualities that made him famous.” Wurdeman concluded with, “Zabelin, who was inspired by the French Impressionists, is perhaps, Russia’s greatest Impressionist, although he had his own unique voice.” Similar admiration can be felt throughout the book as many recounted memories and thoughts on Zablin.

Zabelin Rostov 1                               Vyacheslav Zabelin, Monastery in Rostov, Oil On Canvas, 1986

Thus I would like to take time to flush out some points of Zabelin and his work. Mainly, the beautiful city of Rostov and Russian impressionism because I feel that few know much about either of these. The contextual knowledge of Rostov and Russian impressionism only deepens ones understanding of Zabelin. Since long blog posts are ill advised, keep an eye out for more soon!

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An overview of the Peredvizhniki

Peredvizhniki, or the Wanderers, marked a crucial turning point in the history of Russian art. The Peredvizhniki was the artist group, led by Ivan Kramskoi, that revolted against the Russian Academy’s solely Romantic art style in pursuit of a more Realist style. This simply means art should be seen by the people of Russian and be about the people of Russia and not the Romanticism that was primarily Western European.

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Above is a photograph of the Peredvizhniki group.

In France, a similar situation unfolded as the Impressionists were denied entry into the French Academy and thus were put into the Salon des Refuses. Interestingly enough, these events both took place in 1863. The difference is, however, that the art of Peredvizhniki did not change in style as with the French Impressionists. Instead, the Peredvizhniki revolted against the establishment of the academy that monopolized the entire art world of Russia at the time.

Edouard Manet - Luncheon on the Grass - Google Art Project.jpg The Luncheon on the Grass, Edouard Manet, 1886-18863. A famous example of a work in the Salon.

Pavel Tretyakov became the first private collector in Russia and bought a significant number of Peredvizhniki works, for the first time providing competition for the Academy. Even so, the Academy maintained a relationship with the Peredvizhniki, giving them financial support and studio space. Eventually, the Peredvizhniki had to join the Academy in order for these artists to be able to afford to create more art. There was just not enough outside commissions after about the 1870s. By the 1890s the Peredvizhniki was fully engulfed by the Academy, and by then was considered to be the old style and had competition from the newer movements, such as Rayonism and Suprematism.

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Above are the self portraits of Natalia Goncharova and Mikhail Larinov, housed in the Tretaykov Gallery on Krmsky val, who are the pioneers of ‘avant-gardeism’ in Russia.

However, Stalin liked the Peredvizhniki, saying it matched his party line because these works are Russian in subject, not Western, and revealed the Russian people in a positive light. Therefore, Stalin suppressed the avant- garde, the aforementioned Rayonism and Suprematism, calling the Peredvizhniki the foundation for Soviet Socialist Realism. Then, Socialist Realism became the only art form allowed because it was essentially progoganda for Stalinism. However, as mentioned in a previous post, 100 Years Since the Russian Revolution, there were also Realists arts who held out the reign of Stalin. They created their own revolutionary art by going, once again, back to true Russian subjects as the Peredvizhniki did.

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Ilya Repin, Barge Haulers on the Volga, 1870-1873. Repin is one of the most well known Russian artists of the 19th century.

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Sergei Gerasimov, Collective Farm Celebration, 1937. an example of Socialist Realism.

 

A Collector- Marjorie Merriweather Post

Recently, in my search for Russian art, I discovered the Hillwood– Estate, Museum & Gardens created by the fabulous Marjorie Merriweather Post (below). Post was an heiress, businesswoman, philanthropist, and art collector. Her collection is primarily 18th century French art and furnishing and Russian Imperial art, the most comprehensive outside of Russia. Between her being a strong woman of history and our shared affinity for Russian art, I quickly made plans to visit her estate in Northwest DC. I was blown away by what had been practically in my backyard this whole time. I absorbed as much as I could that afternoon and was left inspired. Therefore, this experience must be presented in two parts. First, I would like to introduce Marjorie Merriweather Post as a collector, and later talk about her exquisite collection.

20170219_145021 - Copy                       portrait by Douglas Chandor, 1952, commissioned by Post’s daughter.

Post inherited $20 million from her father, the founder of the Postum Cereal Company, after her parents died when she was only 27. In the 1920’s she lived in New York and married Edward Bennett Close. With her wealth she was able to furnish their home after 18th century France and the neoclassical style of Louis XVI. The excellent craftsmanship and elegance she surrounded herself with exposed her to art collecting and high taste. This  also led her to the British art dealer Sir Joseph Duveen, who worked with the likes of Henry Frick and John Rockefeller. He helped Post create a name for herself as a collector by purchasing furniture and tapestries. Below is a picture from her French Drawing Room, designed after the in vogue style previously mentioned of the early 20th century. In the center is a portrait painting of Empress Eugenie by Franz Xaver Winterhalter in 1857.

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Her second husband was Edward Hutton. Together, they turned Post Cereal Company into General Foods with her decision to invest in the frozen food business. In the 1920s she also began to collect Sevres porcelain (above, flanking the portrait), more French furniture, jeweled objects, and Faberge (pictured below).

Marjorie’s third husband was Joseph E. Davies, the ambassador to the Soviet Union. This marriage brought her to Moscow, where they lived in the embassy for over a year. During this time, the 1930’s, the Soviet government was still selling off the treasures of Imperial Russian. In storerooms and commission shops, Marjorie was able to buy her Imperial fine and decorative arts. After that year, she continued to pursue Russian art as this was what started her passion for it.

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Above, is the Catherine the Great Easter Egg, 1914 and an example of a piece she bought while in the Soviet Union. Currently, it is in the Icon Room among other treasure of the Russian Orthodox Church. According to the lovely pamphlet passed out to the visitors of the Hillwood, this egg was given from Nicholas II to his mother Maria Fedorovna in 1914, as a part of the family’s Easter tradition. It’s named after Catherine the Great due to it’s cameo scene of the arts and sciences, something near to Catherine’s heart, and the long lost miniature figure of Catherine that used to be inside.

After she divorced Davies in 1955, she purchases the Hillwood and lived out her life there. Once she bought the mansion, Post had it completely redesigned to function as both a home for her and an appropriate place to house her collections. She also continued to be a part of her business and continued to be a top hostess for the DC elite. Marjorie Merriweather Post died in 1973, however, she granted her collection and home to the public. Besides the Mansion, there is an Art Research Library, Cafe, Pet Cemetery, Friendship Walk (a path dedicated by her friends), a Japanese-Style Garden, and other gardens. One can only imagine how beautiful it must all look in the spring. Now, everyone can enjoy her fabulous home and collection. I highly recommend visiting if you are in the DC area. The Hillwood is approximately 2 hours from the Lazare Gallery! (<- remember to call to make an appointment to view and/ or buy the works of Nikita Fedosov)

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Nikita Fedosov: Glazes?

Nikita Fedosov stands out as one of the most talented 20th century’s Russian Realist painters. Like Rembrandt, Fedosov used tinted glazes, a technique which allowed him to achieve subtle transitions and colors that otherwise would be unavailable. Below, you can see Fedosov’s mastery of color in how the orange sky goes from dull to vibrant, providing a sharp juxtaposition between the forest and the sky.

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Nikita  Fedosov, End of Sunset, 1968

      How does one use glazes in an oil painting? To find out, I looked into how Rembrandt did it, after all, he is the Masters’ Master. Apparently, he used a impasto with egg as a quick dry ingredient, glass, and white lead. Once it was applied thickly, Rembrandt was able to carve into it before it dried. Then he applied the glaze to be wiped off leaving dimension and gleam to his work. This technique also created a subtle bas relief effect due to the glaze darkening and glowing in the crevices. Sometimes a transparent yellow or brown would be applied on top as well for a final touch of luster. Stunning.

 Rembrandt, Detail of Man with Golden Helmet, 1650.

         Nikita Fedosov Night Sentry sunset                                                          Nikita  Fedosov, Night Sentry, 1980

       What stands out to me in Fedosov’s work is his use of vibrant orange. Where as Rembrandt use glaze to bring light forward for dramatic chiaroscuro, I believe Fedosov used glazes to set the sun on the horizon. In Night Sentry and End of Sunset,  the setting sun is maintaining the bright glow of the actual sun while still pulling the eye back into the horizon line. Further, his work is extremely painterly with defined brush strokes, that could have been created by the glaze settling into the lines of the paint brushes mark.

      Another way Fedosov’s talent shines is in the way he has painted clouds. When I was in Russia, the clouds and the sky stood out most to me. I was happy to come home, see a Fedosov painting, and be brought back to those moments. His clouds have the same appeal as they do in reality; big, fluffy, white yet with color.

 Fedosov The Road to Vorge              cropped-fedosov-gigantic-coud.jpg

       Fedosov, Road to Vorge, 1981                                      Fedosov, Gigantic Cloud, 1970

        Here, the yellow and grey are nuanced, adding the dimension to the sky and clouds, created by his use of glazes. Of course, all paintings are more stunning in person. If you visit the Lazare Gallery you will be able to see the glow of Nikita Fedosov’s work. The show Russia’s Legend- Nikita Fedosov will be on view until March 31. Most of his pieces are also for sale! Please call to make an appointment to see and or buy his work, as the Lazare Gallery is by appointment only.

100 Years Since the Russian Revolution

While a trip to Russia sounds like the standard way to honor and recognize the centenary of the Russian Revolution, as an art lover, I would like to go to London. Currently at the Royal Academy of Arts there is an exhibit on called ‘Revolution: Russian 1917- 1932.’ This is the 15 year period when Russia was creating art that captured the optimism and the harshness of revolution and the aftermath. Artist giants included are Kazimir Malevich, Vassily Kandinsky, Marc Chagall, Alexander Rodchenko, and Lyubov Popova. However, some lesser known (but equally as important) artists in the exhibition are Isaak Brodsky, Boris Mikhailovich Kustodiev, Andrey Golubev, and Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin. This show also brings to light how all artistic forms became the manifest of revolution; photography, literature, sculpture, film making, propaganda, and graphic design.

 Isaak Brodsky,V.I.Lenin and Manifestation, 1919.

      However, in 1932, Stalin’s oppression shut it all down. Socialist Realism became the only acceptable art form meant to serve the communist party line. Thus art had to be optimistic, realistic, and heroic, revealing what the future could hold. Essentially, propaganda to keep the masses loyal to the Soviet and Communist cause.

     In addition to this exhibit, Martin Sixsmith wrote an article for the Royal Academy which acts as an art history review of this 15 year time period. I highly recommend reading it, if like me you are unable to see the exhibit. In short, he shows you why (in more detail than the above paragraph) Kazimir Malevich went from:

 Kazimir Malevich, Red SquareKazimir Malevich, Red Square, 1915,  to Kazimir Malevich, Portrait of Nikolai Punin Kazimir Malevich,Portrait of Nikolai Punin, 1933.

     Side note- I have been fortunate enough to see the Black Square in the Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow, and White on White (White Square) in the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Alas, by the time I got to Saint Petersburg, ready to see the Red Square in the State Russian Museum and complete some kind of art history trifecta, it was already on its way to London. So, I would REALLY love to see this show.

      At any rate, how does this connect to a 20th century Russian Realism blog? I will continue the story of Russian art briefly, where Martin Sixsmith left off.

         As we can see, realism fell from fashion in favor of something edgy and new to match the initial zeitgeist of the revolution. Representational Realism was out and avant-garde abstraction was in. During the anti bourgeoisie and tradition years, many of the Realists painters left for the countryside or painted in seclusion, as the Bolsheviks seized their schools. However, once Stalin and the Communist regime mandated Socialist Realism many of the avant-garde artists fell out of love with the revolution and consequentially, either fled or joined or died in the gulag. Stalin then saw the need for high culture to keep on par with the West, therefore, painters had to be educated. The Surikov Institute in Moscow became one of the greatest schools for fine and traditional art. So much so, that when the Nazis invaded Russia in 1941, artists and student were sent to safety in Samarkand, Uzbekistan.

YK5013L.jpg Yuri Kugach, Samarkand, 1942

        While many artists did turn to and accept Socialist Realism, there were those traditional artists who rejected it, similar to the avant-garde artists. The Russian Realists did not want to be tools for propaganda but still wanted to paint in the realism cannon. They consistently produced work under dismal circumstances creating art that is representational and transcendentally beautiful due to their high technical expertise. Their work shows an organic pride for Russia as their subject matter tends to be the beautiful country side, old towns, and traditional Russian life. Socialist Realism is often too heavy-handed in the joys of Communism and Soviet life. What I believe it boils down to were those who were prideful of Russia versus the Soviet Union.

 M. Sokolov, 1958, A Mill on the River Ozerkye

     What I hope to show is that while the Constructionists, Futurists, and Supremacists dominated during the revolution years, they were not alone in countering Stalin after 1932. Russian realism presents its own rebuttal to Socialist Realism. But for 2017, it is important that we appreciate the efforts of those revolutionaries who were so daring and yet (initially) so welcomed in their extreme abstraction.

IZO Shuts Down

One of the best blogs on Russian culture has shut down indefinitely. It was the pet project of gallery owner, collector, art historian and author Matthew Bown whose work we posted on a few months ago. This farewell message appeared on June 9th:

“Dear readers, I’m afraid this will be the last edition of IZO for the foreseeable future. I have not the time to devote to the blog since reaching an agreement with Yale University Press to write a book on the relationship between ancient relics and contemporary art. The book will require all my spare computer time. I want to thank all IZO’s readers, regular and irregular, for dropping by, and especially of course the contributors, among whom the outstanding figure has been MK from DC (here and here). Thanks so much, MK. The IZO blog will remain open for the time being as a reference source. Matthew.”

The site is definitely still worth checking out.  The categories on the right are probably the best way to dig through it now that nothing is exactly current news. Link